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The Connection Between ADHD and Convergence Insufficiency


7 min


The connection between ADHD and convergence insufficiency.

In the following article, we will look at the relationship between ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity issue), a neurodevelopmental illness, and convergence insufficiency, an eye issue, and how it might affect people’s daily life.

The connection between the two conditions lies in the potential overlap of certain symptoms. Furthermore, convergence insufficiency might underlie the exacerbation of ADHD symptoms. Both conditions can exhibit signs of inattention and difficulties with tasks requiring sustained focus, such as reading and near tasks.

We’ll delve into the latest research, potential causes, and how early detection and appropriate interventions can make a significant difference in managing these co-occurring conditions. Let’s explore ADHD and eye convergence insufficiency.

What is Convergence Insufficiency?

Convergence insufficiency (CI) is an eye disorder that affects a person’s ability to bring their eyes together comfortably and accurately to focus on a nearby object. This condition is characterized by difficulty in maintaining proper eye alignment when looking at something up close, such as reading a book or using a computer.

Convergence Insufficiency Symptoms

The main symptoms of CI include:

  • double vision,
  • eye strain,
  • difficulty with reading or other close-up work,
  • headaches,
  • blurred vision,
  • words moving or jumping and
  • difficulty with depth perception.

Approximately 7.5 % of the population is affected by CI.

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What is convergence insufficiency?

What is ADHD?

ADHD stands for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. It is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults and is characterized by a pattern of persistent symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that interfere with daily functioning and well-being.

ADHD Symptoms

Symptoms can be mainly focused on difficulty paying attention, fidgeting, reduced concentration, and often, learning difficulties.

”The disorder globally affects 5% – 7.2% of youth and 2.5% – 6.7% of adults.”

ADHD stands for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. It is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults and is characterized by a pattern of persistent symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that interfere with daily functioning and well-being.

How do ADHD and Convergence Insufficiency Impact Daily Life Activities?

ADHDConvergence Insufficiency
Driving– Inattention and impulsivity can lead to distracted driving and difficulty focusing on the road.
– Impulsivity may result in riskier driving behaviors.
– Difficulty in maintaining attention can lead to missed traffic signals and increased accident risk.
– Difficulties with depth perception, which can affect judging distances, potentially impacting their ability to drive safely, particularly in complex traffic situations.
Reading– Inattention can make it challenging to sustain focus on reading materials, leading to slower reading speed and comprehension issues.
– Impulsivity may result in the reader frequently losing their place in the text.
– CI can lead to eye strain and discomfort when reading for extended periods, which can reduce reading endurance.
Double vision and blurred vision can make reading challenging and unpleasant.
Using computers– Difficulty with sustained attention can lead to inefficiency and procrastination when working on the computer.
– Impulsivity may cause distractions, such as frequently switching between tasks or opening unrelated websites or applications.
– Similar to reading, eye strain can occur when using computers for extended periods, making it less comfortable and productive.
Blurred vision can affect the clarity of on-screen text and graphics.
The connection between ADHD and CI

Exploring the Connection Between Convergence Insufficiency and ADHD

In this chapter, we explore the connection between the two and ask: Can convergence insufficiency be cured?

Children with Vision Issues are at Higher Risk for developing ADHD

A study published in Optometry and Vision Science in May 2016 shed light on a noteworthy connection between vision problems and ADHD.

”The research indicated that children with vision issues are 200% more likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis.”

Convergence insufficiency, a specific vision problem, might underlie the exacerbation or development of ADHD symptoms. Importantly, this suggests that ADHD itself does not lead to vision problems.

Furthermore, one study even pointed to a potential threefold greater incidence of ADHD among individuals with convergence insufficiency, in comparison to the general U.S. population.

Conversely, there appeared to be a threefold greater incidence of convergence insufficiency within the ADHD population. It’s crucial to note that while this suggests an association, it may not imply a direct causative relationship.

Children with vision issues are 200% more likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis.

Addressing the Diagnostic Challenges of Overlapping Symptoms: Eye Convergence Insufficiency and ADHD

However, it’s important to recognize that these conditions can also be misdiagnosed since they share numerous overlapping symptoms. This can complicate accurate diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, understanding the warning signs and ensuring comprehensive evaluations by healthcare professionals are essential steps in possibly excluding one of the diagnoses or providing appropriate care for those potentially affected by both conditions.

Challenges, Treatment Approaches, and Best Practices for Integrated Care

Integrating care for individuals with both ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) and convergence insufficiency can be complex, as it requires addressing the unique challenges associated with each condition and meeting the needs of individuals.

Integrated care for ADHD and CI poses challenges such as:
symptom overlap which makes it hard to define the source of an issue,
– each individual’s variation of the two conditions,
– and complex coordination among multiple healthcare professionals.

How to Treat Convergence Insufficiency and ADHD

The most effective treatment approaches include a comprehensive evaluation by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals (optometrist or ophthalmologist, a psychologist, a psychiatrist and others) that include vision testing and ADHD assessment.

The vision conditions can be treated by vision therapy exercises and ADHD by behavioural interventions, such as psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and other behavioral interventions, or by prescribing medications for a better management of symptoms.

It is also important to consider environmental modifications such as ergonomic workspaces and minimizing distractions which can help manage both conditions.

Best practices in the field of ADHD and convergence insufficiency include a regular monitoring with healthcare professionals which communicate among the team.

Best Practices for treating ADHD and Convergence Insufficiency

Best practices in the field include a regular monitoring with healthcare professionals which communicate among the team. It is important to support the patient and family by educating them about conditions, treatment options and strategies for managing symptoms and by providing them with opportunities to get involved with a support groups which can provide a sense of community and shared experiences. If you can, advocate for the individual’s needs in both educational and workplace settings, ensuring that accommodations are provided as necessary.

Which Steps Should Parents or Caregivers Take?

  1. Ensure comprehensive eye exams to assess for convergence insufficiency and other issues with functional vision.
  2. Arrange for behavioral assessments to evaluate and diagnose ADHD, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the child’s symptoms.
  3. Be aware that children with convergence insufficiency may not always recognize their vision issues and might think that their vision is normal, even if they experience symptoms like double vision.
  4. Recognize that both conditions can benefit from appropriate diagnosis and treatment, which may involve a combination of therapies, lifestyle adjustments, and, when necessary, medication for managing ADHD or vision exercises for convergence insufficiency.

Get Informed and Act Promptly!

Key connections Between Convergence Insufficiency and ADHD

A significant link between vision problems and ADHD has been found, with children having vision issues being 200% more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD.

Convergence insufficiency might contribute to the development or worsening of ADHD symptoms, while we now understand that ADHD does not cause vision problems.

However, since they share similar symptoms, the visual condition might be overlooked and misdiagnosing can appear. 


Given that both conditions share overlapping symptoms, accurate diagnosis is critical. This emphasizes the need for heightened awareness among healthcare professionals and parents or caregivers to ensure that children receive the appropriate evaluations.

Early and accurate diagnosis is crucial. If you suspect ADHD or convergence insufficiency in yourself or your children, consult healthcare professionals promptly for a comprehensive evaluation.

Timely identification can lead to effective management and improved well-being. Your proactive approach can make a significant difference in ensuring a better future.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is ADHD?

ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.

What is Convergence Insufficiency (CI)?

Convergence Insufficiency is an eye disorder where the eyes have difficulty working together to focus on nearby objects.

How can I determine if CI is contributing to ADHD-like symptoms?

A comprehensive eye exam by an optometrist or ophthalmologist can diagnose CI. If CI is present, treating it may help clarify the situation.

Are there other conditions that mimic ADHD and should be ruled out?

Yes, other medical, psychological, or learning disorders can present with similar symptoms, so a thorough evaluation is important.

What should I do if I suspect a connection between ADHD and CI?

Consult with a healthcare professional, such as an eye specialist and a psychiatrist, for a comprehensive evaluation and appropriate treatment recommendations.

How does CI relate to ADHD symptoms?

CI can lead to symptoms resembling ADHD, such as inattention, distractibility, and difficulty with reading and schoolwork.

Can treating CI help with ADHD symptoms?

Treating CI may improve attention and focus in some individuals, but it won’t “cure” ADHD if it is the primary diagnosis.

What are common treatments for Convergence Insufficiency?

Treatments may include vision therapy, prisms, and special eyeglasses to improve convergence and alleviate symptoms.


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