How does amblyopia occur?

How does amblyopia occur?
Photo: https://www.drstephenchase.com/

Sight is arguably the most important sense and it affects our everyday life. It is not surprising that it is also one of the most complicated systems in our bodies. As with any other complex system – there are numerous elements that must work in complete sync. When one eye is not in sync and is sending worse signals to the brain, we are talking about amblyopia (or lazy eye).

Types of Amblyopia

Although we might simplify that amblyopia is an inability of the eye to focus clearly, it is much more than that. National Eye Institute describes several causes that result in the development of a lazy eye:

  • Refractive Error: Refractive error (observed as blurry vision) is oftentimes referred to as either nearsightedness, farsightedness or astigmatism. It is a result of the eye’s inability to focus light on the retina. As a consequence of refractive error, refractive amblyopia develops. Because the eye with refractive error sends a blurry image to the brain, the brain starts disregarding that image. Because the eye is underutilized, it starts becoming weaker and starts developing refractive amblyopia.
  • Strabismus: The most frequent type of amblyopia is strabismic amblyopia, which is a result of misaligned eyes. Because the images that each eye is sending to the brain are not aligned, the brain has a hard time combining both images.
  • Cataract: Lazy eye caused by cataract is called deprivation amblyopia. A cataract causes the blurry image in the front part of the eye, which prevents the light from entering and focusing in the eye.

It is oftentimes surprising that lazy eye or amblyopia is quite unknown in the general population. While it may sound like a quite niche problem, there are more than 200,000 cases in the US every year. Some studies show that there are about 2% of the population suffering from serious lazy eye, while some indicate this goes as high as to 5% in some form of amblyopia. Amblyopia is also one of the most common visual dysfunctions of children.

There are several ways how one can start treating amblyopia and we’ve prepared a very informative blog that talks about active treatment options for you, through which we are able to rebuild the vision that was previously lost to lazy eye.

Diagnosis

However, there are indications of how we can notice that there might be something amiss in our child’s vision. One such is that we might notice the drift of one eye, which may appear as misaligned. The other way is to see how a child reacts to when they have one eye closed. If they complain about having a blurry image, they might be suffering from a lazy eye. In any case, you should schedule an eye exam with the eye doctor specialized in pediatric eye care.

We prepared a short blog post that takes you through a basic procedure on how you can test a little bit if there are any discrepancies. You can check the steps here, however, this does not, in any case, replace the need for a vision exam by a trained professional!

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